The Erich Werdermann collection ‘Plantae Chilenses’ held at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh constitutes an important set of herbarium specimens from the Chilean flora, and represents over 10% of preserved specimens from Chile in the herbarium. Duplicate sets of specimens were distributed from the Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem to a further 15 major international herbaria. Here we provide a description of this collection, highlighting aspects of Werdermann’s journey in Chile. Included are his itinerary and maps showing where the specimens were collected. An important aspect of the paper is to clarify ambiguities concerning label data in order to provide more accurate detail for researchers using Werdermann’s specimens.