Multi-stage heat release is an important feature of hydrocarbon auto-ignition that influences engine operation. This work presents findings of previously unreported three-stage heat release in the auto-ignition of n-heptane/air mixtures at lean equivalence ratios and high pressures. Detailed homogenous gas-phase chemical kinetic simulations were utilized to identify conditions where two-stage and three-stage heat release exist. Temperature and heat release profiles of lean n-heptane/air auto-ignition display three distinct stages of heat release, which is notably different than two-stage heat release typically reported for stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures. Concentration profiles of key radicals (HO 2 and OH) and intermediate/product species (CO and CO 2 ) also display unique behavior in the lean auto-ignition case. Rapid compression machine measurements were performed at a lean equivalence ratio to confirm the existence of three-stage heat release in experiments. Laser diagnostic measurements of CO concentrations in the RCM indicate similar concentration-time profiles as those predicted by kinetic modeling. Computational singular perturbation was then used to identify key reactions and species contributing to explosive time scales at various points of the three-stage ignition process. Comparisons with two-stage ignition at stoichiometric conditions indicate that thermal runaway at the second stage of heat release is inhibited under lean conditions. H?+?O 2 chain branching and CO oxidation reactions drive high-temperature heat release under stoichiometric conditions, but these reactions are suppressed by H, OH, and HO 2 radical termination reactions at lean conditions, leading to a distinct third stage of heat release.
- Chemical kinetics modeling
- Computational singular perturbation
- Hydrocarbon ignition
- Multi-stage ignition
- Rapid compression machine