The ontogeny of schooling behaviour in the striped jack

R Masuda, K Tsukamato

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54 Citations (Scopus)


The ontogeny of schooling behaviour was investigated in laboratory-reared striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex larvae and juveniles. Mean separation angle between nearest individuals averaged 78 and 82 degrees in 10- and 12-mm fish, respectively, and decreased to 57 degrees in 16-mm fish. In addition, interindividual distance decreased from three times body length in 12-mm fish to twice the body length in 16-mm individuals; this value continued to decrease gradually to 1.3 at 19 mm to 0.79 at 30 mm. Mutual attraction due to visual recognition was observed in 12-mm fish and increased with total length. The optokinetic response (R-o, the ability of a fish to keep station with moving patterns) first appeared in 4-6-mm larvae. In spite of the traditional emphasis of the importance of R-o in schooling behaviour, the onset of R-o was insufficient to result in school formation. The emergence of mutual attraction seems essential for the ontogeny of schooling. (C) 1998 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-493
Number of pages11
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Marine & Freshwater Biology
  • Fisheries
  • FISH


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