Our ability to meet environmental targets is often constrained by processes and events that occur over long timescales and which may not be considered during the planning process. We illustrate with examples and define three major types of temporal scale phenomena of relevance to marine managers: Memory and Future Effects (jointly called Legacy Effects) and Committed Behaviors. We examine the role of these effects in achieving marine environmental targets in Europe under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the implications for future management, indicating the increased importance that these temporal phenomena give to reducing future pressures.
O'Higgins, T., Cooper, P., Roth, E., Newton, A., Farmer, A., Tett, P., & Goulding, I. C. (2014). Temporal constraints on ecosystem management: definitions and examples from Europe’s regional seas. Ecology and Society, 19(4), . https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06507-190446