The application of biosecurity in seaweed aquaculture plays an important role in reducing the impact of disease and pest outbreaks. The continuous occurrence of seaweed pests including the macroalgal epiphytes, epi-endophytic filamentous algae and biofilms on Kappaphycus farms may also potentially induce further incidences of the ice-ice syndrome. In this study, on-farm biosecurity management measures were tested on the commercially grown seaweeds Kappaphycus malesianus and Kappaphycus alvarezii during peak ice-ice season at Gallam-Gallam Village, Sabah, Malaysia. The investigation was focused on preventative control measures including the early detection of the ice-ice syndrome and pests through propagule health checks, regular cleaning of the crop thallus and associated long-line ropes and monitoring of the environment. Farm procedures and practices were also assessed in terms of their biosecurity ‘risk’ using the hazard analysis and critical control point (HCCAP) approach. Observations were replicated in two different farm management systems; one system adopted routine biosecurity measures and the other had no biosecurity measures. The results showed that the ice-ice syndrome and pest outbreak was significantly decreased by 60–75% for K. malesianus and 29–71% for K. alvarezii at the farm which adopted the routine biosecurity measures compared with the no biosecurity treatment. The biosecurity measures also significantly improved growth rate and seaweed quality. The infection levels of the epi-endophyte Melanothamnus sp. contributed to the ice-ice syndrome in K. malesianus, whilst the epiphyte coverage was correlated to the ice-ice incidence in K. alvarezii. This study provides the first evidence of biosecurity management measures significantly decreasing the incidence of the ice-ice syndrome and pests on a commercial seaweed farm.
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Journal of Applied Phycology|
|Publication status||Published - 2 Aug 2021|
- Farm practices
- Ice-ice syndrome
- Kappaphycus farm
- Seaweed aquaculture