Complexes of DNA with the protamines stellin A and stellin B, in polymer-containing solutions, form both liquid crystalline phases and liquid crystalline dispersions. The ‘non-specific’ organization of the (DNA-protamine) phase is determined by the presence of protamine ‘cross links’ between the DNA molecules and not by the inherent anisotropy (cholesteric) double-stranded DNA molecules. Elimination of these ‘cross links’ by proteolytic enzyme action causes an increase in the distance between the DNA molecules which results in the appearance of an intense band in the CD spectrum and a ‘fingerprint’ (cholesteric) texture.
Skuridin, S. G., Hall, J., Turner, A. P. F., & Yevdokimov, Y. M. (1995). Restructuring space ordering of (DNA-protamine) complexes in liquid crystalline dispersions under proteolytic enzyme treatment. Liquid Crystals, 19(5), 595-602. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678299508031073