Quantitative Determination of Antidepressants and Their Select Degradates by Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Biosolids Destined for Land Application

Lydia M. Niemi, Katherine A. Stencel, Madigan J. Murphy, Melissa M. Schultz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Antidepressants are one of the most widely dispensed classes of pharmaceuticals in the United States. As wastewater treatment plants are a primary source of pharmaceuticals in the environment, the use of biosolids as fertilizer is a potential route for antidepressants to enter the terrestrial environment. A microsolvent extraction method, utilizing green chemistry, was developed for extraction of the target antidepressants and degradation products from biosolids, or more specifically lagoon biosolids. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantitative determination of antidepressants in the lagoon biosolid extracts. Recoveries from matrix spiking experiments for the individual antidepressants had an average of 96%. The limits of detection for antidepressant pharmaceuticals and degradates ranged from 0.36 to 8.0 ng/kg wet weight. The method was applied to biosolids destined for land application. A suite of antidepressants was consistently detected in the lagoon biosolid samples, and thus antidepressants are being introduced to terrestrial environments through the land application of these biosolids. Sertraline and norsertraline were the most abundant antidepressant and degradation product detected in the biosolid samples. Detected, individual antidepressant concentrations ranged from 8.5 ng/kg (norfluoxetine) to 420 ng/kg wet weight (norsertraline).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7279-7286
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume85
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2013

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