The recent success of large-scale industrialized genomic sequencing opens new doors in studies of biological systems. In the current post-genomic era we must ask how to translate this DNA sequence information into an understanding of living cells, tissues and organisms. One of the major goals is to characterize protein function, biochemical pathways and networks. Achieving this aim is greatly advanced by application of new proteomic tools combined with database mining. Neuroscience in particular is poised to benefit from these approaches in light of its high complexity and cross-talk between different neurotransmitter receptors within the same synapse or across the synaptic cleft. Little is known about the global in vivo protein interactions within synapses, and the knowledge of all proteins present in such structures will help in determining sub-complexes and the modular arrangement of proteins within them. This article reviews the impact of and outlines the application of proteomic analysis in the field of neuroscience, illustrating this with the example of NMDA receptor complexes.