Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests undesirable on both ethical and financial grounds, creating an urgent need for development of in vitro cell-based assays that accurately predict in vivo toxicity and facilitate safe nanotechnology.
Cho, W-S., Duffin, R., Bradley, M., Megson, I. L., Macnee, W., Lee, J. K., Jeong, J., & Donaldson, K. (2013). Predictive value of in vitro assays depends on the mechanism of toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 10(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-10-55