Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UK Waters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines

Keith Davidson, Clothilde Baker, Cowan Higgins, Wendy HIgman, Sarah Swan, Andrea Veszelovszki, Andrew Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)
66 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Cyclic imines (CIs) are a group of phytoplankton produced toxins related to shellfish food products, some of which are already present in UK and European waters. Their risk to shellfish consumers is poorly understood, as while no human intoxication has been definitively related to this group, their fast acting toxicity following intraperitoneal injection in mice has led to concern over their human health implications. A request was therefore made by UK food safety authorities to examine these toxins more closely to aid possible management strategies. Of the CI producers only the spirolide producer Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known to exist in UK waters at present but trends in climate change may lead to increased risk from other organisms/CI toxins currently present elsewhere in Europe and in similar environments worldwide. This paper
reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of CIs and CI-producing phytoplankton, together with
testing methodologies. Chemical, biological and biomolecular methods are reviewed, including
recommendations for further work to enable effective testing. Although the focus here is on the UK,
from a strategic standpoint many of the topics discussed will also be of interest in other parts of the
world since new and emerging marine biotoxins are of global concern.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7087-7112
Number of pages26
JournalMarine Drugs
Volume13
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2015

Keywords

  • cyclic imines
  • shellfish
  • harmful phytoplankton
  • biotoxins

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