Performance benchmarking microplate-immunoassays for quantifying target-specific cysteine oxidation reveals their potential for understanding redox-regulation and oxidative stress

Ahmet Tuncay, Daniel R Crabtree, David J Muggeridge, Holger Husi, James N Cobley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The antibody-linked oxi-state assay (ALISA) for quantifying target-specific cysteine oxidation can benefit specialist and non-specialist users. Specialists can benefit from time-efficient analysis and high-throughput target and/or sample n-plex capacities. The simple and accessible "off-the-shelf" nature of ALISA brings the benefits of oxidative damage assays to non-specialists studying redox-regulation. Until performance benchmarking establishes confidence in the "unseen" microplate results, ALISA is unlikely to be widely adopted. Here, we implemented pre-set pass/fail criteria to benchmark ALISA by evaluating immunoassay performance in diverse contexts. ELISA-mode ALISA assays were accurate, reliable, and sensitive. For example, the average inter-assay CV for detecting 20%- and 40%-oxidised PRDX2 or GAPDH standards was 4.6% (range: 3.6-7.4%). ALISA displayed target-specificity. Immunodepleting the target decreased the signal by ∼75%. Single-antibody formatted ALISA failed to quantify the matrix-facing alpha subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. However, RedoxiFluor quantified the alpha subunit displaying exceptional performance in the single-antibody format. ALISA discovered that (1) monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation amplified PRDX2-oxidation in THP-1 cells and (2) exercise increased GAPDH-specific oxidation in human erythrocytes. The "unseen" microplate data were "seen-to-be-believed" via orthogonal visually displayed immunoassays like the dimer method. Finally, we established target (n = 3) and sample (n = 100) n-plex capacities in ∼4 h with 50-70 min hands-on time. Our work showcases the potential of ALISA to advance our understanding of redox-regulation and oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-265
JournalFree Radical Biology & Medicine
Volume204
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2023

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