Neutrophils play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of multiple human inflammatory diseases. Novel pharmacological strategies which drive neutrophils to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) have been shown to facilitate the resolution of inflammation. Both the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) R-roscovitine and nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to enhance apoptosis of neutrophils and possess pro-resolution of inflammation properties. In order to search for new multi-target pro-resolution derivatives, here we describe the design, synthesis and investigation of the biological potential of a small series of hybrid compounds obtained by conjugating R-roscovitine with two different NO-donor moieties (compounds 2, 9a, 9c). The synthesized compounds were tested as potential pro-resolution agents, with their ability to promote human neutrophil apoptosis evaluated. Both compound 9a and 9c showed an increased pro-apoptotic activity when compared with either R-roscovitine or structurally related compounds devoid of the ability to release NO (des-NO analogues). Inhibition of either NO-synthase or soluble guanylate cyclase did not affect the induction of apoptosis by the R-roscovitine derivatives, similar to that reported for other classes of NO-donors. In contrast the NO scavenger PTIO prevented the enhanced apoptosis seen with compound 9a over R-roscovitine. These data show that novel compounds such as CDKi-NO-donor hybrids may have additive pro-resolution of inflammation effects.
- Cells, Cultured
- Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
- Guanylate Cyclase
- Nitric Oxide Donors
- Nitric Oxide Synthase
- Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Montanaro, G., Bertinaria, M., Rolando, B., Fruttero, R., Lucas, C. D., Dorward, D. A., Rossi, A. G., Megson, I. L., & Gasco, A. (2013). Novel R-roscovitine NO-donor hybrid compounds as potential pro-resolution of inflammation agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 21(7), 2107-2116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2013.01.009