Previous studies show that linking acetylated glucosamine to S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) stabilizes the molecule and causes it to elicit unusually prolonged vasodilator effects in endothelium-denuded, isolated rat femoral arteries. Here we studied the propanoyl (SNPP; 3 carbon side-chain), valeryl (SNVP; 5C) and heptanoyl (SNHP; 7C) N-substituted analogues of SNAP (2C), to further investigate other molecular characteristics that might influence chemical stability and duration of vascular action of S-nitrosothiols. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that SNVP was the most stable analogue in solution. Decomposition of all four compounds was accelerated by Cu(II) and cysteine, and neocuproine, a specific Cu(I) chelator, slowed decomposition of SNHP. Generation of NO from the compounds was confirmed by electrochemical detection at 37 degrees C. Bolus injections of SNAP (10 microl; 10(-8)-10(-3) M) into the perfusate of precontracted, isolated rat femoral arteries taken from adult male Wistar rats (400-500 g), caused concentration-dependent, transient vasodilatations irrespective of endothelial integrity. Equivalent vasodilatations induced by SNVP and SNHP were transient in endothelium-intact vessels but failed to recover to pre-injection pressures at moderate and high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-3) M) in those denuded of endothelium. This sustained effect (> 1 h) was most prevalent with SNHP and was largely reversed by the NO scavenger, haemoglobin. We suggest that increased lipophilicity of SNAP analogues with longer sidechains facilitates their retention by endothelium-denuded vessels; subsequent slow decomposition within the tissue generates sufficient NO to cause prolonged vasodilatation. This is a potentially useful characteristic for targeting NO delivery to areas of endothelial damage.
Megson, I. L., Morton, S., Greig, I. R., Mazzei, F. A., Field, R. A., Butler, A. R., Caron, G., Gasco, A., Fruttero, R., & Webb, D. J. (1999). N-Substituted analogues of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine: chemical stability and prolonged nitric oxide mediated vasodilatation in isolated rat femoral arteries. British Journal of Pharmacology, 126(3), 639-48. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0702346