Mitochondrial creatine sensitivity is lost in the D2.mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescued by the mitochondrial-enhancing compound Olesoxime

Catherine A Bellissimo, Luca J Delfinis, Meghan C Hughes, Patrick C Turnbull, Shivam Gandhi, Sara N DiBenedetto, Fasih A Rahman, Peyman Tadi, Christina A Amaral, Ali Dehghani, James Cobley, Joe Quadrilatero, Uwe Schlattner, Christopher G R Perry

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with distinct mitochondrial stress responses. Here, we aimed to determine whether the prospective mitochondrial-enhancing compound Olesoxime prevents early-stage mitochondrial stress in limb and respiratory muscle from D2.mdx mice using a proof-of-concept short-term regimen spanning 10-28 days of age. As mitochondrial-cytoplasmic energy transfer occurs via ATP- or phosphocreatine-dependent phosphate shuttling, we assessed bioenergetics with or without creatine in vitro. We observed that disruptions in Complex I-supported respiration and H 2O 2 emission in D2.mdx quadriceps and diaphragm were amplified by creatine demonstrating mitochondrial creatine insensitivity manifests ubiquitously and early in this model. Olesoxime selectively rescued or maintained creatine sensitivity in both muscles, independent of the abundance of respiration-related mitochondrial proteins or mitochondrial creatine kinase cysteine oxidation in quadriceps. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity and glutathione were altered in a muscle-specific manner in D2.mdx but were generally unchanged by Olesoxime. Treatment reduced serum creatine kinase (muscle damage) and preserved cage hang-time, microCT-based volumes of lean compartments including whole body, hindlimb and bone, recovery of diaphragm force after fatigue, and cross-sectional area of diaphragm type IIX fibre, but reduced type I fibres in quadriceps. Grip strength, voluntary wheel-running and fibrosis were unaltered by Olesoxime. In summary, locomotor and respiratory muscle mitochondrial creatine sensitivities are lost during early stages in D2.mdx mice but are preserved by short-term treatment with Olesoxime in association with specific indices of muscle quality suggesting early myopathy in this model is at least partially attributed to mitochondrial stress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Pages (from-to)C1141-C1157
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Cell physiology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 May 2023


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