Transportation of marine organisms by humans has taken place for millennia as intentional introductions for food or trade or as accidental hitchhikers on vessels. Globalisation and the growth of shipping and marine industries are increasing the opportunities for the spread of marine organisms. Hard artificial structures are increasingly found along the world’s coastlines, as well as offshore, altering connectivity between habitats and facilitating movement of marine non-native species (NNS). When these species establish in new environments, they can cause changes in marine communities, potentially impacting resident species through predation, competition or changes to structural habitat. Marine NNS may also alter the way in which people interact with the environment and in some cases can cause significant economic damage. The need to control the spread and establishment of marine NNS has led to global policy initiatives to manage pathways of species invasion; however, many of the vectors of species movement are still unregulated, with novel challenges posed by climate change–driven shifts in species distribution and the transport of organisms on plastic debris.
|Title of host publication||Routledge Handbook of Biosecurity and Invasive Species|
|Number of pages||19|
|Publication status||Published - 12 May 2021|