Maltese Translation and Adaptation of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for Breast Screening Among Maltese Women

Danika Marmarà, Vincent Marmarà, Gill Hubbard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Translating, adapting, and piloting Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Mammography Screening (CHBMS-MS) and Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) among Maltese women.

METHODS: The Maltese questionnaire (Maltese Breast Screening Questionnaire [MBSQ]) was developed through 9 steps. Bilingual women (n = 15) completed MBSQ at 2 time points.

RESULTS: During forward-backward translations (Steps 1-4), 4 English controversial terms were raised. Twelve experts agreed on terminologies during adaptation process (Step 5). Following face validity (n = 6; Step 6), 3 items were deleted. Following reconciliation (Step 7) and proofreading (Step 8), MBSQ consisted of 121 items. Pilot testing (Step 9) showed positive correlation (CHBMS-MS = .87, IPQ-R = .85; p < .001); high Cronbach's alpha (CHBMS-MS = .93, IPQ-R = .92); overall acceptable internal consistency (CHBMS-MS = .69-.83, IPQ-R = .75-.93); and acceptable test-retest reliability correlations: CHBMS-MS (Maltese = .62-.76; English = .61-.84), IPQ-R (Maltese=.63-.82; English = .61-.91; p < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Maltese and English scale items demonstrated high reliability and validity preliminary values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-503
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Nursing Measurement
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


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