Food intake and dietary glycaemic index in free-living adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

Susan C McGeoch, Grietje Holtrop, Claire Fyfe, Gerald E Lobley, Donald W M Pearson, Prakash Abraham, Ian L Megson, Sandra M Macrury, Alexandra M Johnstone

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Abstract

A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed dietary record. Patients with T2DM consumed more daily portions of wholegrains (2.3 vs. 1.1, P = 0.003), more dietary fibre (32.1 vs. 20.9 g, P <0.001) and had a lower diet GI (53.5 vs. 57.7, P = 0.009) than subjects without T2DM. Both groups had elevated fat and salt intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, relative to current UK recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2DM may already consume a lower GI diet than the general population but further efforts are needed to reduce dietary GI and achieve other nutrient targets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)683-93
Number of pages11
JournalNutrients
Volume3
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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McGeoch, S. C., Holtrop, G., Fyfe, C., Lobley, G. E., Pearson, D. W. M., Abraham, P., ... Johnstone, A. M. (2011). Food intake and dietary glycaemic index in free-living adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrients, 3(6), 683-93. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu3060683