First confirmed complete incubation of a flapper skate (Dipturus intermedius) egg in captivity

Steven Benjamins, Georgina Cole, Adam Naylor, James Thorburn, Jane Dodd

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An egg of the Critically Endangered flapper skate Dipturus intermedius was successfully incubated to hatching in captivity, in what is believed to be a first for the species. Water conditions (temperature, salinity, flow rate) were recorded, with mean water temperatures ranging from a monthly mean of 8.3±1.2 to 13.2±0.3ºC and salinity from a monthly mean of 30.5±1.2 to 36.6±2.3 ppt. Hatching occurred after 534 days, suggesting that flapper skate eggs take approximately 5700 growing degree-days to incubate to hatching. The egg's prolonged embryonic development raises concerns about flapper skate eggs’ vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Fish Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2021


  • Egg
  • Embryo
  • Development
  • time
  • Temperature
  • Flapper skate
  • Dipturus intermedius


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