First confirmed complete incubation of a flapper skate (Dipturus intermedius) egg in captivity

Steven Benjamins, Georgina Cole, Adam Naylor, James Thorburn, Jane Dodd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An egg of the Critically Endangered flapper skate Dipturus intermedius was successfully incubated to hatching in captivity, in what is believed to be a first for the species. Water conditions (temperature, salinity, flow rate) were recorded, with mean water temperatures ranging from a monthly mean of 8.3±1.2 to 13.2±0.3ºC and salinity from a monthly mean of 30.5±1.2 to 36.6±2.3 ppt. Hatching occurred after 534 days, suggesting that flapper skate eggs take approximately 5700 growing degree-days to incubate to hatching. The egg's prolonged embryonic development raises concerns about flapper skate eggs’ vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Fish Biology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2 Jun 2021


  • Egg
  • Embryo
  • Development
  • time
  • Temperature
  • Flapper skate
  • Dipturus intermedius

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