Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated as a key factor in the development of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, but its definition and mechanisms vary greatly between different disease processes. This review combines evidence from cell-culture experiments, in vitro and in vivo animal models, and clinical studies to identify the variety of mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction in its broadest sense. Several prominent disease states, including hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, are used to illustrate the different manifestations of endothelial dysfunction and to establish its clinical implications in the context of the range of mechanisms involved in its development. The size of the literature relating to this subject precludes a comprehensive survey; this review aims to cover the key elements of endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and to highlight the importance of the process across many different conditions.
Le Brocq, M., Leslie, S. J., Milliken, P., & Megson, I. L. (2008). Endothelial dysfunction: from molecular mechanisms to measurement, clinical implications, and therapeutic opportunities. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10(9), 1631-74. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2007.2013