Demographic factors associated with myopia knowledge, attitude and preventive practices among adults in Ghana: a population-based cross-sectional survey

Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, Stephen Ocansey, Antor O. Ndep, Sylvester Kyeremeh, Godwin Ovenseri-Ogbomo, Bernadine N. Ekpenyong, Kingsley E. Agho, Edgar Ekure, Khathutshelo Percy Mashige, Kelechi C. Ogbuehi, Tuwani Rasengane, Nana Darkoah Nkansah, Kovin Shunmugan Naidoo

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Abstract

Purpose: Knowledge, positive attitude and good preventive practices are keys to successful myopia control, but information on these is lacking in Africa. This study determined the KAP on myopia in Ghana. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among adults (aged 18 years and older) living across 16 regions of Ghana between May and October 2021. Data on socio-demographic factors (sex, age, gender, level of education, working status, type of employment, monthly income, and region of residence), respondents’ awareness, and knowledge, attitude and preventive practices (KAP) about myopia were collected. Composite and mean scores were calculated from eleven knowledge (total score = 61), eight attitude (48), and nine preventive practice items (33). Differences in mean scores were assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and standardized coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using multiple linear regression to determine the associations between the dependent (KAP) and demographic variables. Results: Of the 1,919 participants, mean age was 37.4 ± 13.4 years, 42.3% were aged 18–30 years, 52.6% were men, 55.8% had completed tertiary education, and 49.2% had either heard about myopia, or accurately defined myopia as short sightedness. The mean KAP scores were 22.9 ± 23.7, 33.9 ± 5.4, and 22.3 ± 2.8, respectively and varied significantly with many of the demographic variables particularly with age group, region, marital status, and type of employment. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant associations between region of residence and knowledge (β =—0.54, 95%CI:-0.87, -0.23, p < 0.001), attitude (β =—0.24, 95%CI:-0.35,-0.14, p < 0.001) and preventive practices (β = 0.07, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.12, p = 0.015). Preventive practices were also associated with type of employment (self-employed vs employee: β = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.15, 4.91, p < 0.05). Knowledge scores were significantly higher in those who lived in the Greater Accra (39.5 ± 18.5) and Eastern regions (39.1 ± 17.5) and lower among those who lived in the Upper West region (6.4 ± 15.6). Government employees and those with tertiary education had significantly higher mean knowledge scores compared with non-government employees (β = 4.56, 95%CI 1.22, 7.89, p = 0.007), and those with primary/no education (β = 18.35, 95%CI: 14.42, 22.27, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Ghanaian participants had adequate knowledge of myopia but showed poor attitude and low preventive practices, which varied significantly between regions and were modified by socio-demographic factors. Further research into how education can be used to stimulate Ghanaians’ engagement in preventive practices is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1712
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sept 2023

Keywords

  • Attitude
  • Ghana
  • Knowledge
  • Myopia
  • Preventive practices
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

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