Catalyst-free Click PEGylation reveals substantial mitochondrial ATP synthase sub-unit alpha oxidation before and after fertilisation

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Abstract

Using non-reducing Western blotting to assess protein thiol redox state is challenging because most reduced and oxidised forms migrate at the same molecular weight and are, therefore, indistinguishable. While copper catalysed Click chemistry can be used to ligate a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety termed Click PEGylation to mass shift the reduced or oxidised form as desired, the potential for copper catalysed auto-oxidation is problematic. Here we define a catalyst-free transcyclooctene-methyltetrazine (TCO-Tz) inverse electron demand Diels Alder chemistry approach that affords rapid (k ~2000 M-1 s-1), selective and bio-orthogonal Click PEGylation. We used TCO-Tz Click PEGylation to investigate how fertilisation impacts reversible mitochondrial ATP synthase F1-Fo sub-unit alpha (ATP-α-F1) oxidation—an established molecular correlate of impaired enzyme activity—in Xenopus laevis. TCO-Tz Click PEGylation studies reveal substantial (~65%) reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation at evolutionary conserved cysteine residues (i.e., C244 and C294) before and after fertilisation. A single thiol is, however, preferentially oxidised likely due to greater solvent exposure during the catalytic cycle. Selective reduction experiments show that: S-glutathionylation accounts for ~50-60% of the reversible oxidation observed, making it the dominant oxidative modification type. Intramolecular disulphide bonds may also contribute due to their relative stability. Substantial reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation before and after fertilisation is biologically meaningful because it implies low mitochondrial F1-Fo ATP synthase activity. Catalyst-free TCO-Tz Click PEGylation is a valuable new tool to interrogate protein thiol redox state in health and disease.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101258
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalRedox Biology
Volume26
Early online date18 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 18 Jun 2019

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Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases
Fertilization
Adenosine Triphosphate
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Oxidation
Catalysts
Oxidation-Reduction
Copper
Click Chemistry
Xenopus laevis
Disulfides
Cysteine
Proteins
Molecular Weight
Western Blotting
Molecular weight
Health
Electrons
Enzymes
Experiments

Keywords

  • Mitochondria
  • ATP synthase
  • Fertilisation
  • Development
  • Redox signalling

Cite this

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title = "Catalyst-free Click PEGylation reveals substantial mitochondrial ATP synthase sub-unit alpha oxidation before and after fertilisation",
abstract = "Using non-reducing Western blotting to assess protein thiol redox state is challenging because most reduced and oxidised forms migrate at the same molecular weight and are, therefore, indistinguishable. While copper catalysed Click chemistry can be used to ligate a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety termed Click PEGylation to mass shift the reduced or oxidised form as desired, the potential for copper catalysed auto-oxidation is problematic. Here we define a catalyst-free transcyclooctene-methyltetrazine (TCO-Tz) inverse electron demand Diels Alder chemistry approach that affords rapid (k ~2000 M-1 s-1), selective and bio-orthogonal Click PEGylation. We used TCO-Tz Click PEGylation to investigate how fertilisation impacts reversible mitochondrial ATP synthase F1-Fo sub-unit alpha (ATP-α-F1) oxidation—an established molecular correlate of impaired enzyme activity—in Xenopus laevis. TCO-Tz Click PEGylation studies reveal substantial (~65{\%}) reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation at evolutionary conserved cysteine residues (i.e., C244 and C294) before and after fertilisation. A single thiol is, however, preferentially oxidised likely due to greater solvent exposure during the catalytic cycle. Selective reduction experiments show that: S-glutathionylation accounts for ~50-60{\%} of the reversible oxidation observed, making it the dominant oxidative modification type. Intramolecular disulphide bonds may also contribute due to their relative stability. Substantial reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation before and after fertilisation is biologically meaningful because it implies low mitochondrial F1-Fo ATP synthase activity. Catalyst-free TCO-Tz Click PEGylation is a valuable new tool to interrogate protein thiol redox state in health and disease.",
keywords = "Mitochondria, ATP synthase, Fertilisation, Development, Redox signalling",
author = "James Cobley and Holger Husi and {Jimenez Fernandez}, Eduardo",
note = "{\circledC} 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1016/j.redox.2019.101258",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "1--8",
journal = "Redox Biology",
issn = "2213-2317",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Catalyst-free Click PEGylation reveals substantial mitochondrial ATP synthase sub-unit alpha oxidation before and after fertilisation

AU - Cobley, James

AU - Husi, Holger

AU - Jimenez Fernandez, Eduardo

N1 - © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PY - 2019/6/18

Y1 - 2019/6/18

N2 - Using non-reducing Western blotting to assess protein thiol redox state is challenging because most reduced and oxidised forms migrate at the same molecular weight and are, therefore, indistinguishable. While copper catalysed Click chemistry can be used to ligate a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety termed Click PEGylation to mass shift the reduced or oxidised form as desired, the potential for copper catalysed auto-oxidation is problematic. Here we define a catalyst-free transcyclooctene-methyltetrazine (TCO-Tz) inverse electron demand Diels Alder chemistry approach that affords rapid (k ~2000 M-1 s-1), selective and bio-orthogonal Click PEGylation. We used TCO-Tz Click PEGylation to investigate how fertilisation impacts reversible mitochondrial ATP synthase F1-Fo sub-unit alpha (ATP-α-F1) oxidation—an established molecular correlate of impaired enzyme activity—in Xenopus laevis. TCO-Tz Click PEGylation studies reveal substantial (~65%) reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation at evolutionary conserved cysteine residues (i.e., C244 and C294) before and after fertilisation. A single thiol is, however, preferentially oxidised likely due to greater solvent exposure during the catalytic cycle. Selective reduction experiments show that: S-glutathionylation accounts for ~50-60% of the reversible oxidation observed, making it the dominant oxidative modification type. Intramolecular disulphide bonds may also contribute due to their relative stability. Substantial reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation before and after fertilisation is biologically meaningful because it implies low mitochondrial F1-Fo ATP synthase activity. Catalyst-free TCO-Tz Click PEGylation is a valuable new tool to interrogate protein thiol redox state in health and disease.

AB - Using non-reducing Western blotting to assess protein thiol redox state is challenging because most reduced and oxidised forms migrate at the same molecular weight and are, therefore, indistinguishable. While copper catalysed Click chemistry can be used to ligate a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety termed Click PEGylation to mass shift the reduced or oxidised form as desired, the potential for copper catalysed auto-oxidation is problematic. Here we define a catalyst-free transcyclooctene-methyltetrazine (TCO-Tz) inverse electron demand Diels Alder chemistry approach that affords rapid (k ~2000 M-1 s-1), selective and bio-orthogonal Click PEGylation. We used TCO-Tz Click PEGylation to investigate how fertilisation impacts reversible mitochondrial ATP synthase F1-Fo sub-unit alpha (ATP-α-F1) oxidation—an established molecular correlate of impaired enzyme activity—in Xenopus laevis. TCO-Tz Click PEGylation studies reveal substantial (~65%) reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation at evolutionary conserved cysteine residues (i.e., C244 and C294) before and after fertilisation. A single thiol is, however, preferentially oxidised likely due to greater solvent exposure during the catalytic cycle. Selective reduction experiments show that: S-glutathionylation accounts for ~50-60% of the reversible oxidation observed, making it the dominant oxidative modification type. Intramolecular disulphide bonds may also contribute due to their relative stability. Substantial reversible ATP-α-F1 oxidation before and after fertilisation is biologically meaningful because it implies low mitochondrial F1-Fo ATP synthase activity. Catalyst-free TCO-Tz Click PEGylation is a valuable new tool to interrogate protein thiol redox state in health and disease.

KW - Mitochondria

KW - ATP synthase

KW - Fertilisation

KW - Development

KW - Redox signalling

U2 - 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101258

DO - 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101258

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 1

EP - 8

JO - Redox Biology

JF - Redox Biology

SN - 2213-2317

M1 - 101258

ER -