Bioavailable concentrations of delphinidin and its metabolite, gallic acid, induce antioxidant protection associated with increased intracellular glutathione in cultured endothelial cells

Katarzyna Goszcz, Sherine Deakin, Garry Duthie, Derek Stewart, Ian Megson

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Despite limited bioavailability and rapid degradation, dietary anthocyanins are antioxidants with cardiovascular benefits. This study tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant protection conferred by the anthocyanin, delphinidin, is ediated by modulation of endogenous antioxidant defences, driven by its degradation product, gallic acid. Delphinidin was found to degrade rapidly (t1/2 ~ 30 min), generating gallic acid as a major degradation product. Both delphinidin and gallic acid generated oxygen-centred radicals at high (100 μM) concentrations in vitro. In a cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell model of oxidative stress, the antioxidant protective effects of both delphinidin and gallic acid displayed a hormesic profile; 100 μM concentrations of both were cytotoxic, but relatively low concentrations (100nM–1 μM) protected the cells and were
associated with increased intracellular glutathione. We conclude that delphinidin is intrinsically unstable and unlikely to confer any direct antioxidant activity in vivo yet it offered antioxidant protection to cells at low concentrations. This paradox might be explained by the ability of the degradation product, gallic acid, to confer benefit. The findings are important in understanding the mode of protection conferred by anthocyanins and reinforce the necessity to conduct in vitro experiments at biologically relevant concentrations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9260701
Number of pages17
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sep 2017


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