A socio-ecological survey in Inhambane Bay mangrove ecosystems: biodiversity, livelihoods, and conservation

Juliana Come, Nasreen Peer, José L. Nhamussua, Nelson AF. Miranda, Célia CF. Macamo, Antonio S. Cabral, Horácio Madivadua, Daniel Zacarias, Junior Narcisco, Bernadette Snow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide a variety of ecosystem services to local communities. Mangrove ecosystems are important blue carbon ecosystems that support unique fauna, flora, and livelihoods. The decline and degradation of mangrove populations, mostly due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change, necessitate protection worldwide. There is limited research on the conservation and management of these ecosystems in Mozambique. A combination of six biodiversity surveys, thirty-one semi-structured interviews and participant observation at six sites was used to describe and understand mangrove ecosystems in Inhambane Bay. This study is among the first to involve local community leaders as academic co-authors, thus highlighting the value of local ecological knowledge and community involvement, both of which are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of mangrove ecosystems. Social and ecological approaches were integrated to describe mangrove ecosystems, perceived ecosystem services and benefits to local communities. This study has identified areas of increased mangrove cover and areas with disturbance. Out of the seven mangrove species that occur in Inhambane Bay, Avicennia marina was the most abundant mangrove species in at least three sites, and Xylocarpus granatum the least abundant mangrove species, present only in two sites. Perceived benefits include provisioning, supporting and regulating services. Community initiatives to protect mangroves include enforcing environmental laws, prohibiting cutting mangrove trees, and replanting. This study shows that community initiatives for law enforcement and mangrove restoration play an important role in raising awareness and actively protecting mangroves.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOcean and Coastal Management
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023


  • mangrove ecosystems
  • biodiversity
  • conservation
  • livelihoods
  • collaborative management
  • Inhambane Bay


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