Cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein (C-FABP), a cancer promoter and metastasis inducer, is overexpressed in the majority of prostatic carcinomas. Investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-promoting activity of C-FABP has established that there is a fatty acid-initiated signaling pathway leading to malignant progression of prostatic cancer cells. Increased C-FABP expression plays an important role in this novel signaling pathway. Thus, when C-FABP expression is increased, excessive amounts of fatty acids are transported into the nucleus where they act as signaling molecules to stimulate their nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR¿). The activated PPAR¿ then modulates the expression of its downstream target regulatory genes, which eventually lead to enhanced tumor expansion and aggressiveness caused by an overgrowth of cells with reduced apoptosis and an increased angiogenesis.