Rebels, tyrants, papists, Jesuits, Brownists, schismatics, heathens, separatists and anarchists. These are just a few of the insults and allegations which Scottish Royalists and ‘anti-covenanters’ levelled against the Covenanting regime during the British Civil Wars (c.1638-1651). This paper takes a closer look at anti-covenanting rhetoric and explores the reasoning behind it. It will argue that understanding how these anti-covenanters portrayed their enemies is crucial to appreciating the complexities of Royalist ideology and identity in Scotland. Printed publications, manuscript tracts, personal correspondence, contemporary accounts and Gaelic bardic poetry are all examined in order to provide a critical assessment of the identity politics of 1640s Scotland.